アーキタイプ定義言語 1.4

この文書はADL 1.4の翻訳です。内容の正確性については保証しないので原文を参照してください。 TOC

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1. はじめに

  1. Introduction

1.1 目的

1.1 Purpose

この文書にはアーキタイプ定義言語(ADL; Archetype Definition Language)の文法と設計原則について記述されている。想定する読者はソフトウェア開発者や技術指向のドメインスペシャリスト、技術顧問(SME; Subject Matter Expert)である。ADLは当初ツールによって読み書きすることを想定していたが、人間にとっても読むことができるものであり一般のテキストエディタを使ってADLアーキタイプを手で編集することもできる。

This document describes the design basis and syntax of the Archetype Definition Language (ADL). It is intended for software developers, technically-oriented domain specialists and subject matter experts (SMEs). Although ADL is primarily intended to be read and written by tools, it is quite readable by humans and ADL archetypes can be hand-edited using a normal text editor.


  • 健康情報の標準を作成する標準化団体
  • openEHRを使ってソフトウェア開発をする団体
  • openEHRを使う学術グループ
  • オープンソースヘルスケアコミュニティ
  • 医療情報学者や健康情報に興味を持つ臨床家
  • 健康データの管理者

The intended audience includes:

  • Standards bodies producing health informatics standards;
  • Software development organisations using openEHR;
  • Academic groups using openEHR;
  • The open source healthcare community;
  • Medical informaticians and clinicians interested in health information;
  • Health data managers.

1.2 関連する文書

1.2 Related Documents



Prerequisite documents for reading this document include:

  • The openEHR Architecture Overview

Related documents include:

  • The openEHR Archetype Object Model (AOM)
  • The openEHR Archetype Profile (oAP)

1.3 命名規則

1.3 Nomenclature

この文書では、「属性」(attribute)はオブジェクトもデルで定義された型に登録される任意のプロパティを意味する。プリミティブ属性や関連や集約といった関係を表す種類の属性も含まれる。XML「属性」(XML 'Attribute')は常に明示的に「XML属性」(XML attribute)と常に表記します。

In this document, the term ‘attribute’ denotes any stored property of a type defined in an object model, including primitive attributes and any kind of relationship such as an association or aggregation. XML ‘attributes’ are always referred to explicitly as ‘XML attributes’.

1.4 状況

1.4 Status


This document is under development, and is published as a proposal for input to standards processes and implementation works.

この文書は で入手できる。

This document is available at

この文書の最新版は から入手できる。

The latest version of this document can be found in PDF format at

新しいバージョンが出れば、openehr-announce@… で案内される。

New versions are announced on openehr-announce@….

2 概要

2 Overview

2.1 ADLとは何か

2.1 What is ADL?

アーキタイプ定義言語(ADL; Archetype Definition Language)はアーキタイプを表現する形式言語であり、ドメインエントリーの制約ベースのモデルである。つまり、「構造化されたビジネスルール」といってもいいようなものである。アーキタイプの概念はBealeによって記載されているFootNote(Beale T. Archetypes: Constraint-based Domain Models for Future-proof Information Systems. OOPSLA 2002 workshop on behavioural semantics. Available at T. Archetypes: Constraint-based Domain Models for Future-proof Information Systems. 2000. Available at !

Archetype Definition Language (ADL) is a formal language for expressing archetypes, which are constraint-based models of domain entities, or what some might call ‘structured business rules’. The archetype concept is described by Beale [1], [2]. The openEHR Archetype Object Model [3] describes the definitive semantic model of archetypes, in the form of an object model. The ADL syntax is one possible serialisation of an archetype. The openEHR archetype framework is described in terms of Archetype Definitions and Principles [6] and an Archetype System [7]. Other semantic formalisms considered in the course of the development of ADL, and some which remain relevant are described in detailed in section 10 on page 109. ADL uses three other syntaxes, cADL (constraint form of ADL), dADL (data definition form of ADL), and a version of first-order predicate logic (FOPL), to describe constraints on data which are instances of some information model (e.g. expressed in UML). It is most useful when very generic information models are used for describing the data in a system, for example, where the logical concepts PATIENT, DOCTOR and HOSPITAL might all be represented using a small number of classes such as PARTY and ADDRESS. In such cases, archetypes are used to constrain the valid structures of instances of these generic classes to represent the desired domain concepts. In this way future-proof information systems can be built - relatively simple information models and database schemas can be defined, and archetypes supply the semantic modelling, completely outside the software. ADL can thus be used to write archetypes for any domain where formal object model(s) exist which describe data instances. When archetypes are used at runtime in particular contexts, they are composed into larger constraint structures, with local or specialist constraints added, via the use of templates. The formalism of templates is dADL. Archetypes can be specialised by creating an archetypes that reference existing archetypes as parents; such archetypes can only make certain changes while remaining compatible with the parent. Another major function of archetypes is to connect information structures to formal terminologies. Archetypes are language-neutral, and can be authored in and translated into any language. Finally, archetypes are completely path-addressable in a manner similar to XML data, using path expressions that are directly convertible to Xpath expressions. 2.1.1 Structure Archetypes expressed in ADL resemble programming language files, and have a defined syntax. ADL itself is a very simple “glue” syntax, which uses two other syntaxes for expressing structured constraints and data, respectively. The cADL syntax is used to express the archetype definition, while the dADL syntax is used to express data which appears in the language, description, ontology, and revision_history sections of an ADL archetype. The top-level structure of an ADL archetype is shown in FIGURE 1.


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