Changes between Version 2 and Version 3 of Archetype FAQ


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Timestamp:
Jul 21, 2007, 7:30:20 PM (12 years ago)
Author:
KOBAYASHI, Shinji
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  • Archetype FAQ

    v2 v3  
    55このページは、[http://www.openehr.org/FAQs/t_archetypes_FAQ.htm Archetypes and Templates FAQ]の翻訳です。正確な内容については原文を参照してください。
    66
    7 == What is an Archetype? ==
     7== アーキタイプ(Archetype)って何ですか? ==
     8
     9アーキタイプは再利用可能なドメインコンセプトの形式モデルです。形式のコンセプトはThomas Bealeの論文に詳細が記述されたものが元になっています。アコンピュータで利用するためにアーキタイプがアプローチしている重要な特徴は、情報モデルをドメインモデルから完全に分離していることです(ソフトウェアのオブジェクトモデルとデータベーススキーマのモデルのような感じです)。いくつかのソフトウェア工学の手法とは異なり,ドメインコンセプトは別の層のクラスモデルにより単純に表現されるのではなく、制約のある言語で記述されたドメインコンセプトによるライブラリで表現されます。
    810
    911An archetype is a re-usable, formal model of a domain concept. The formal concept was originally described in detail in a paper by Thomas Beale. The key feature of the archetype approach to computing is a complete separation of information models (such as object models of software, models of database schemas) from domain models. Unlike some software engineering methods, the domain concepts are not simply represented by another layer of a class model, but by a library of domain concepts, authored in a constraint language.
    1012
     13アーキタイプにはいくつかの重要な目的があります。
     14
    1115Archetypes have a number of key purposes:
    1216
    13     * they allow domain experts such as clinicians to create the definitions which will define the data structuring in their information systems
    14     * they provide runtime validation of data input via GUI or any batch process
    15     * they provide a basis for intelligent querying of data.
     17 * 臨床家といった特定のドメインの専門家に情報システムのデータ構造を規定するための諸定義を作成させることができる
     18 * GUIやバッチ処理などによる実行時のデータ検証を提供することができる。
     19 * データに対する知的な問い合わせの基本となることができる。
     20
     21 * they allow domain experts such as clinicians to create the definitions which will define the data structuring in their information systems
     22 * they provide runtime validation of data input via GUI or any batch process
     23 * they provide a basis for intelligent querying of data.
    1624
    1725A short document on archetype principles is here (90k PDF).
     
    1927In health, concepts that can be modelled using archetypes include things like:
    2028
    21     * weight measurement
    22     * blood pressure
    23     * microbiology results
    24     * discharge referral
    25     * prescription
    26     * diagnosis
     29 * weight measurement
     30 * blood pressure
     31 * microbiology results
     32 * discharge referral
     33 * prescription
     34 * diagnosis
    2735
    2836and many others. From the user's point of view, these are the kinds of data which occur in health information systems. Each archetype is authored as a text file, using the ADL syntax (ADL 1.3 language specification; ADL 2.0 language specification). Examples of clinical concepts like the above, authored in ADL can be found here. A clinically authored set of archetypes from Australia can be found here. These were created during an RACGP-funded project involving numerous clinical professionals.
     
    7179It is important to understand the big picture of archetypes and templates. For archetypes to really work, there does need to be some large scale organisation, in order to allow sharing and quality control. The following is one model of how archetypes should be used "in-the-large":
    7280
    73    1.
    74 
    75       identify the need: e.g. "we need an archetype to describe the care plan in a discharge summary"
    76    2.
    77 
    78       determine if there are already archetypes for this purpose: logon to an archetype library and interrogate it. Study the archetypes which already exist and determine if they can be used, or else specialised for your purpose
    79    3.
    80 
    81       if you need to build a new archetype, you will most likely have professional colleagues (perhaps international) with whom you should discuss the problem and consider the design
    82    4.
    83 
    84       to actually create an archetype will require an editor; archetypes will be saved in an interoperable format, e.g. ADL
    85    5.
    86 
    87       when a draft archetype has reached a point where you want to share it, you will upload it to the archetype library
    88    6.
    89 
    90       changes to the archetype will occur with version control and audit trailing, just like in document authoring systems
    91    7.
    92 
    93       at some point, your organisation will propose the archetype to a body capable of doing certification - i.e. quality assurance
    94    8.
    95 
    96       archetypes certified for use can be injected into an online network of archetype servers, making them available to archetype-enabled systems
    97    9.
    98 
    99       systems using archetypes, such as EHRs will retrieve the archetypes they need from a local archetype server, and may well convert them to a locally efficient form
    100   10.
    101 
    102       at runtime, locally defined templates will cause archetypes to be invoked and put into action, performing their main job, i.e. data structuring and validation.
     81 1. identify the need: e.g. "we need an archetype to describe the care plan in a discharge summary"
     82 1. determine if there are already archetypes for this purpose: logon to an archetype library and interrogate it. Study the archetypes which already exist and determine if they can be used, or else specialised for your purpose
     83 1. if you need to build a new archetype, you will most likely have professional colleagues (perhaps international) with whom you should discuss the problem and consider the design
     84 1. to actually create an archetype will require an editor; archetypes will be saved in an interoperable format, e.g. ADL
     85 1. when a draft archetype has reached a point where you want to share it, you will upload it to the archetype library
     86 1. changes to the archetype will occur with version control and audit trailing, just like in document authoring systems
     87 1. at some point, your organisation will propose the archetype to a body capable of doing certification - i.e. quality assurance
     88 1. archetypes certified for use can be injected into an online network of archetype servers, making them available to archetype-enabled systems
     89 1. systems using archetypes, such as EHRs will retrieve the archetypes they need from a local archetype server, and may well convert them to a locally efficient form
     90 1. at runtime, locally defined templates will cause archetypes to be invoked and put into action, performing their main job, i.e. data structuring and validation.
    10391
    10492As can be seen, it is not simply a matter of editing an archetype and putting it into your hospital information system! A draft document describing some features of an "archetype system" with the above features is available here.
     
    115103Undoubtedly there are systems which have used something similar to archetypes in the past. Systems which use the formal principles described in the archetype paper or a formal equivalent include:
    116104
    117     * The anti-coagulation EHR system developed by CHIME, UCL, and in production at Whittington Hopsital, Archway, London. This system's architecture is based on the Synapses project, and uses a reference model based on CEN ENV 13606:2000, and an "Object Dictionary" of structures akin to the "legacy archetypes" described above.
    118     * Various GeHR projects in Australia, funded by the RACGP GPCG (General Practice Computing Group).
    119     * The HealthConnect diabetic shared care EHR system being built in Brisbane, Australia by the DSTC. This is based on the openEHR reference model and ADL.
    120     * The Systematic Software Engineering (SSE) EHR system in production in Aarhus County in Denmark. This is a significant system, built using its own reference model and archetype 'language'. It has an archetype editor, and all information in the system is archetyped. It was designed independently of the openEHR archetype approach; however, there have been discussions between people working on openEHR and SSE regarding potential use of ADL and other public specifications. openEHR is also likely to benefit from the experience gained by SSE and the system's users.
     105 * The anti-coagulation EHR system developed by CHIME, UCL, and in production at Whittington Hopsital, Archway, London. This system's architecture is based on the Synapses project, and uses a reference model based on CEN ENV 13606:2000, and an "Object Dictionary" of structures akin to the "legacy archetypes" described above.
     106 * Various GeHR projects in Australia, funded by the RACGP GPCG (General Practice Computing Group).
     107 * The HealthConnect diabetic shared care EHR system being built in Brisbane, Australia by the DSTC. This is based on the openEHR reference model and ADL.
     108 * The Systematic Software Engineering (SSE) EHR system in production in Aarhus County in Denmark. This is a significant system, built using its own reference model and archetype 'language'. It has an archetype editor, and all information in the system is archetyped. It was designed independently of the openEHR archetype approach; however, there have been discussions between people working on openEHR and SSE regarding potential use of ADL and other public specifications. openEHR is also likely to benefit from the experience gained by SSE and the system's users.
    121109
    122110== Who is using the openEHR 'archetype' approach'? ==
    123111Various projects around the world now use archetypes for clinical modelling, including:
    124112
    125     * The Australian Archetypes project (2005), funded by the RACGP GPCG. See here for archetypes.
    126     * Most projects on the openEHR projects page.
     113 * The Australian Archetypes project (2005), funded by the RACGP GPCG. See here for archetypes.
     114 * Most projects on the openEHR projects page.
    127115
    128116== What is a template? ==
     
    130118In openEHR, a "template" is a locally produced constraint specification which specifies which archetypes go together in a screen form or message specification. A template states the following kinds of things:
    131119
    132     * which archetypes are "chained" together in the composition
    133     * removes optional parts of archetypes not needed in the context of use
    134     * selects the language and terminologies to be used from among those available in the archetypes
    135     * further constrains existing constraints in the archetypes.
     120 * which archetypes are "chained" together in the composition
     121 * removes optional parts of archetypes not needed in the context of use
     122 * selects the language and terminologies to be used from among those available in the archetypes
     123 * further constrains existing constraints in the archetypes.
    136124
    137125Templates are expressed in the dADL syntax from ADL. Tools are being developed by openEHR to manipulate templates.
     
    150138There are various papers about archetypes available:
    151139
    152     * A new paper on archetypes - Archetypes: Constraint-based Domain Models for Future-proof Information Systems. Thomas Beale, 2002, prepared for OOPSLA 2002 - Haim Kilov's workshop on Behavioural Semantics ( PDF 171kb, 17pp)
    153     * The original paper - Archetypes - An Interoperable Knowledge Methodology for Future-proof Information Systems.Thomas Beale 2000. (PDF 700 kb, 80pp)
    154     * A paper comparing Archetypes and Templates: Templates and Archetypes: how do we know what we are talking about? Sam Heard et al. February 2003. (PDF 94KB)
    155     * A paper for standardisation: A Shared Archetype Language: A Position Paper for HL7, CEN TC 251, openEHR and other organisations. Thomas Beale, Sam Heard. Jan 2003 ( Word 155KB)
     140 * A new paper on archetypes - Archetypes: Constraint-based Domain Models for Future-proof Information Systems. Thomas Beale, 2002, prepared for OOPSLA 2002 - Haim Kilov's workshop on Behavioural Semantics ( PDF 171kb, 17pp)
     141 * The original paper - Archetypes - An Interoperable Knowledge Methodology for Future-proof Information Systems.Thomas Beale 2000. (PDF 700 kb, 80pp)
     142 * A paper comparing Archetypes and Templates: Templates and Archetypes: how do we know what we are talking about? Sam Heard et al. February 2003. (PDF 94KB)
     143 * A paper for standardisation: A Shared Archetype Language: A Position Paper for HL7, CEN TC 251, openEHR and other organisations. Thomas Beale, Sam Heard. Jan 2003 ( Word 155KB)
    156144